Most pesticides can be harmful to plants if applied in direct sunlight. The water will actually cause a magnification effect from the suns rays causing burning. So in essence, the answer is yes if applied in direct sunlight. Caladiums tend to be easy to burn in most situations anyway, so I would not apply directly to them unless you absolutely have to. Vector Ban is not the best plant use insecticide, as it is designed for mosquitoes and flying insects and not designed to be a plant specific spray.
If using as a flying insect treatment, then simply keep the spray or mist away from the plants.